^{
Type
post
AuthorNews
Date
January 14, 2023
Tagged
Albert Einstein, Brett Tingley, Daniel Clery, Elizabeth Rayne, Enceladus, Evan Gough, Exoplanets, Extraterrestrial life, Fine-tuning of universe for life, Kurt Gödel, Laurence Tognetti, LHS 475b, Low entropy, Matt Williams, Opals on Mars, Paul Sutter, Pluto, Roger Penrose, Scott Alan Johnston, Steve Meyer, Time travel, Tissint, UFOs
}

_{We are starting to find more different kinds of exoplanets and an unexpected source of water on Mars}_{
News
January 14, 2023
7
}

In our universe: Time travel? “How a Rotating Universe Makes Time Travel Possible” At Universe Today, Stony Brook astrophysicist Paul Sutter notes that mathematical philosopher Kurt Gödel (1906–1978) wrote a model for Albert Einstein (1879–1955) of a universe that allows time travel into the past: “Gödel constructed a relatively simple and artificial model universe to prove his point. This universe is rotating and contains only one ingredient. That ingredient is a negative cosmological constant that resists the centrifugal force of the rotation to keep the universe static. / Gödel found that if you follow a particular path in this rotating universe you can end up in your own past. ” (January 11, 2023) Our universe, as it happens, is not Read More ›

^{
Type
podcast
AuthorRobert J. Marks
Date
December 30, 2021
Tagged
A Mathematician's Apology, Active Information in Metabiology, Alan Turing, Andrew Wiles, Automacoin, Bitcoim, But Bang. Ls nascita della filosofia digitale, Carl Friedrich Gauss, Chris Calude, Claude Shannon, Collatz Conjecture, Consciousness and information classical quantum or algorithmic, Dangerous Knowledge, David J. Chalmers, Elements of Information Theory, Elon Musk, Fermat's Last Tango, Fermat's Last Tango (musical), G.H Hardy, George Cantor, Geroge Gilder, Goldbach Conjecture, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Gregory Chaitin, Guilio Tononi, Hector Zenil, Jack Schwartz, Karl Popper, Kurt Gödel, Legendre's Conjecture, Leonard Euler, Lofti Zadeh, Marvin Minsky, Mathematica, Meta Math The quest for the Omega, Neuralink, ON the length of programs for computing finite binary sequences, Paul Erdős, Proving Darwin Making biology mathematical, Ray Solomonoff, Robert J. Marks, Roger Penrose, Selmer Bringsjord, Srinivasa Ramanujan, Stephen Hawking, Stephen Wolfram, The Conscious Mind, The Emperor's New Mind, The Unknowable, Twin Prime Conjecture, Unravelling Complexity The Life and Works of Gregory Chaitin, William Sealy Gosset, WolframAlpha
}

In the 1960s, mathematician and computer scientist Gregory Chaitin published a landmark paper in the field of algorithmic information theory in the Journal of the ACM – and he was only a teenager. Since then he’s explored mathematics, computer science, and even gotten a mathematical constant named after him. Robert J. Marks leads the discussion with Professor Gregory Chaitin on Read More ›

^{
Type
podcast
AuthorRobert J. Marks
Date
September 30, 2021
Tagged
Alan Turing, algorithmic intelligence, Algorithms, Artificial General Intelligence (AGI), Artificial Intelligence, Big Data, code-breaking, Colossus computer, Connectome, Data Mining, DeepMind, Ergodicity, front running, Gaming AI, Gaming AI (book), George Gilder, Gregory Chaitin, John von Neumann, Kurt Gödel, Lee Sedol, life after google, mind, Mind Brain, Mind-Brain Distinction, Nematode worm, Neural networks, protein folding, Ray Kurzweil, Robert J. Marks, stock market, Tony Stretton, Turing Machine, zettabyte
}

George Gilder talks to Robert J. Marks about his book Gaming AI: Why AI Can’t Think but Can Transform Jobs. Show Notes 00:00:45 | Introducing George Gilder 00:03:30 | Is AI a new demotion of the human race? 00:04:59 | The AI movement 00:06:39 | DeepMind and protein folding 00:11:42 | Code-breaking in World War II 00:13:50 | Interpreting between Read More ›

^{
Type
post
AuthorNews
Date
September 27, 2021
Categorized
Science
Tagged
Ethan Siegel, Featured, Fine tuning (general theory), Friedmann Equation, gravity, Hubble Constant squared, Kurt Gödel, Life-permitting interval (LPI), Ola Hössjer, Paul Davies, Probability (of life in universe), Ratios (of constants), Robert J. Marks, Stephen Hawking, Theory of Everything, Universal constants
}

_{Daniel Díaz and Ola Hössjer continue their discussion of the fine tuning of the universal constants of nature with Robert J. Marks }_{
News
September 27, 2021
14
Science
}

In a continuing conversation with Swedish mathematician Ola Hössjer and Colombian biostatistician Daniel Díaz on the fine-tuning of the universe — and Earth — for life, Walter Bradley Center director Robert J. Marks asks them about why a Theory of Everything eludes us and about the life-permitting interval — the narrow window for life that the constants of the universe permit. This is the second part of Episode 3, “The universe is so fine-tuned!” (September 16, 2021). Earlier portions, with transcripts and notes, are listed below. https://episodes.castos.com/mindmatters/Mind-Matters-Episode-152-Hossjer-Diaz.mp3 This portion begins at 12:36 min. A partial transcript, Show Notes, and Additional Resources follow. Robert J. Marks: In truth, there’s a lot of fundamental constants — the electric charge of an electron, Read More ›

^{
Type
post
AuthorNews
Date
July 19, 2021
Categorized
Mathematics
Tagged
Ashutosh Jogalekar, John von Neumann, Kurt Gödel, Stephen Budiansky
}

_{Science writer: As often happens, few people understood the significance of what had just happened. The one exception was John von Neumann.}_{
News
July 19, 2021
4
Mathematics
}

Albert Einstein, Jogalekar tells us, considered it a privilege to walk home with Gödel every day. Why?: In an exceptionally elegant essay, science writer Ashutosh Jogalekar (no stranger to controversy) talks about the huge difference Kurt Gödel (1906–1978) made by eliminating the idea that some single, simple explanation would put an end to all questioning about the nature of the universe in favor of some simple materialism. In a review of Stephen Budiansky’s biography of Gödel, Journey to the Edge of Reason (Harvard 2021), Jogalekar explains how Gödel dashed such hopes: In September 1930, a big conference was going to be organized in Königsberg. German mathematics had been harmed because of Germany’s instigation of the Great War, and Hilbert’s decency Read More ›

^{
Type
post
AuthorRobert J. Marks and Samuel Haug
Date
June 7, 2021
Categorized
Mathematics, Religion
Tagged
Anselm of Canterbury, Axioms, Definitions, Descartees, God's existence, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Kurt Gödel, Kurt Gödel (belief in God), ontological proof, Theorems
}

_{Here is a line-by-line explanation of his proof}_{
Robert J. Marks and Samuel Haug
June 7, 2021
8
Mathematics, Religion
}

Kurt Gödel, an intellectual giant of the 20th century, offered a mathematical proof that God exists. Those who suffer from math anxiety admire what the theorem (shown below) claims to do, but have absolutely no idea what it means. Our goal is to explain, in English, what Gödel’s existence of God proof says. Gödel’s proof shows the existence of God is a necessary truth. The idea behind the truth is not new and dates back to Saint Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109). Great scientists and philosophers, including Descartes and Leibniz, have reconsidered and refined Anselm’s argument. Gödel appears to be the first, however, to present the argument using mathematical logic. Lexicography In any development of a mathematical theory, there are foundational axioms Read More ›

^{
Type
post
AuthorRobert J. Marks
Date
April 18, 2021
Categorized
Philosophy, Science
Tagged
Creator, god, Goldbach's Conjecture, Incompleteness theorems (Gödel), Kurt Gödel, Peter Atkins, Proof (in mathematics), Scientific materialism, Scientism, Stephen Hawking, String theory, Theism, Theory of Everything, William Lane Craig
}

_{There is an infinite number of things that are true that we cannot prove scientifically and never will}_{
Robert J. Marks
April 18, 2021
6
Philosophy, Science
}

Science is based on a glut of laws from physics, chemistry, mathematics, and other areas. The assumption of scientific materialism, as I understand it, is that science has explained or will explain everything. The final conclusion of scientific materialism, also known as scientism, is nicely captured in a question chemist Peter Atkins asked philosopher William Lane Craig in a debate: “Do you deny that science can account for everything?” Scientism’s assumption that science can establish everything is self-refuting. Careful analysis shows that there is an infinite number of things that are true that we cannot prove scientifically and never will. Stephen Hawking saw the tip of the iceberg of this truth when he said, “Up to now, most people have Read More ›

^{
Type
post
AuthorEric Holloway
Date
April 9, 2021
Categorized
Artificial Intelligence, Creativity, Philosophy of Mind
Tagged
Creative intelligence, Creative intelligence (cluttered attic analogy), Creative intelligence (connect the dots analogy), Creative intelligence (puzzle analogy), Creativity, Featured, Incompleteness theorems (Gödel), Kurt Gödel
}

_{Creative intelligence is easier to describe by what it is not than by what it is. But there is a clue in that very fact… }_{
Eric Holloway
April 9, 2021
4
Artificial Intelligence, Creativity, Philosophy of Mind
}

I’ve spent the past couple articles debunking artificial intelligence. It is just as artificial as its name suggests. It takes on the appearance of intelligence through speed but it lacks the fundamental ability to create a well-matched start and end. So a perceptive reader has returned with another good question: “What is creative intelligence?” The reader is right to ask. Yes, telling someone that the exquisite dessert is not celery and not cod liver oil does not help us understand what the dessert itself is. There is a mystery regarding the very nature of human intelligence. Like its antithesis, randomness, creative intelligence is easier to describe by what it is not than by what it is. But, we can try! Read More ›

^{
Type
post
AuthorNews
Date
March 21, 2021
Categorized
Artificial Intelligence, Mathematics, Neuroscience, Programming
Tagged
Brain-Computer Interface (BCI), Computer sim universe, Computers (creativity limits), Creativity, Elon Musk, Featured, Georg Cantor (illness), Gregory Chaitin, Kurt Gödel, Kurt Gödel (illness), Neuralink, Proof checkers (software), Robert J. Marks
}

_{Mathematician Gregory Chaitin explains why Elon Musk is, perhaps unexpectedly, his hero}_{
News
March 21, 2021
12
Artificial Intelligence, Mathematics, Neuroscience, Programming
}

In last week’s podcast, “The Chaitin Interview III: The Changing Landscape for Mathematics,” Walter Bradley Center director Robert J. Marks interviewed mathematician and computer scientist Gregory Chaitin on many things mathematical, including why great books on math, advancing new theorems, aren’t written much any more. This week, we look at why geniuses like Musk (whose proposed Mars Orbiter is our featured image above) simply can’t just follow the rules, for better or worse: https://episodes.castos.com/mindmatters/Mind-Matters-126-Gregory-Chaitin.mp3 This portion begins at 7:57 min. A partial transcript, Show Notes, and Additional Resources follow. Gregory Chaitin: Look at Elon Musk (pictured). He’s my great hero. He’s a wonderful engineer and he’s a wonderful entrepreneur and he doesn’t follow the rules. Robert J. Marks: He doesn’t, Read More ›

^{
Type
podcast
AuthorRobert J. Marks
Date
March 11, 2021
Tagged
Algorithmic Information Theory, Computer science, Fermat's Last Theorem, Gregory Chaitin, Kurt Gödel, Mathematics, Randomness
}

In the 1960s, mathematician and computer scientist Gregory Chaitin published a landmark paper in the field of algorithmic information theory in the Journal of the ACM – and he was only a teenager. Listen in as Robert J. Marks explores that paper with Chaitin, covering Chaitin’s definition of randomness and his philosophical interest in algorithmic information theory. Show Notes 00:27 Read More ›

^{
Type
post
AuthorNews
Date
March 6, 2021
Categorized
Mathematics
Tagged
Berry Paradox, Emil Post, Epimenides' Paradox, Featured, Gregory Chaitin, Kurt Gödel, Liar's Paradox, Robert J. Marks
}

_{This hard-to-find anecdote gives some sense of the encouraging but eccentric math genius}_{
News
March 6, 2021
7
Mathematics
}

In this week’s podcast, “The Chaitin interview I: Chaitin chats with Kurt Gödel,” Walter Bradley Center director Robert J. Marks interviewed mathematician and computer scientist Gregory Chaitin. Yesterday, we noted his comments on the almost supernatural awareness that the great mathematicians had of the foundations of reality in the mathematics of our universe. This time out, Chaitin recounts how he (almost) met the eccentric genius Kurt Gödel (1906–1978): https://episodes.castos.com/mindmatters/Mind-Matters-124-Gregory-Chaitin.mp3 This portion begins at 12:42 min. A partial transcript, Show Notes and Additional Resources follow. Robert J. Marks: You mentioned that you read the article about Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorem in Scientific American I also know that you had a near brush with Gödel and I’ve heard the story from you. But Read More ›

^{
Type
post
AuthorNews
Date
March 5, 2021
Categorized
Artificial Intelligence, Mathematics, Religion
Tagged
Carl Friedrich Gauss, Featured, Georg Cantor, God's existence, Gödel ’s Proof, Gregory Chaitin, infinity, Kurt Gödel, Leonhard Euler, Niels Henrik Abel, Robert J. Marks, Srinivasa Ramanujan
}

_{Himself a “game-changer” in mathematics, Chaitin muses on what made the great thinkers stand out}_{
News
March 5, 2021
12
Artificial Intelligence, Mathematics, Religion
}

In this week’s podcast, “The Chaitin interview I: Chaitin chats with Kurt Gödel,” Walter Bradley Center director Robert J. Marks interviewed mathematician and computer scientist Gregory Chaitin on the almost supernatural awareness that the great mathematicians had of the foundations of reality in the mathematics of our universe: https://episodes.castos.com/mindmatters/Mind-Matters-124-Gregory-Chaitin.mp3 This discussion begins at 8:26 min. A partial transcript, Show Notes and Additional Resources follow. Robert J. Marks: There are few people who can be credited without any controversy with the founding of a game changing field of mathematics. We are really fortunate today to talk to Gregory Chaitin (pictured) who has that distinction. Professor Chaitin is a co-founder of the Field of Algorithmic Information Theory that explores the properties of Read More ›

^{
Type
podcast
AuthorRobert J. Marks
Date
March 4, 2021
Tagged
Algorithmic Information Theory, Computer science, Gregory Chaitin, Kurt Gödel, Leonard Euler, Mathematics
}

In this week’s Mind Matters episode, Robert J. Marks begins a conversation with mathematician and computer scientist Gregory Chaitin. The two discuss Chaitin’s beginnings in computer science, his thoughts on historic scientists in his field such as Leonard Euler and Kurt Gödel, and even the story of how a cold call to Gödel almost led to Chaitin meeting the famed Read More ›

^{
Type
post
AuthorJonathan Bartlett
Date
December 31, 2020
Categorized
Education
Tagged
Alfred North Whitehead, Bertrand Russell, Kurt Gödel, Rene Descartes
}

_{Why do so many people today think there are only arguments, not facts?}_{
Jonathan Bartlett
December 31, 2020
6
Education
}

In modern “woke” ideology, there are no facts, only arguments which express cultural power— based on the acceptance of those arguments by current society. In such ideologies, it is not important whether or not the arguments are logically consistent or if they are true in any real sense. What is important is whether or not they achieve the desired results in politics and society. This is not a criticism. It is a description of their methodology (for a review of the academic literature on the subject, see the book Cynical Theories by Helen Pluckrose and James Lindsay. Many people wonder how we got here. Why do so many scholars actively reject logic as a method of finding the truth, and Read More ›

^{
Type
podcast
AuthorRobert J. Marks
Date
November 5, 2020
Tagged
Alan Turing, Artificial General Intelligence (AGI), Artificial Intelligence, Connectome, DeepMind, Ergodicity, George Gilder, Kurt Gödel, Life after Google (book), Nematode worm, Neural networks, Ray Kurzweil, Singularity, Superintelligence, Tony Stretton, Turing Machine, zettabyte
}

George Gilder and Robert J. Marks discuss the human brain, superintelligent machines, artificial intelligence, and George Gilder’s new book Gaming AI: Why AI Can’t Think but Can Transform Jobs (which you can get for free here). Show Notes 00:29 | Introducing George Gilder 01:00 | An “Indian summer” in AI? 03:45 | Superintelligence 06:04 | The future of computing technology Read More ›

^{
Type
podcast
AuthorRobert J. Marks
Date
October 29, 2020
Tagged
Alan Turing, Artificial Intelligence, Big Data, Data Mining, Ergodicity, front running, Gaming AI (book), George Gilder, Gregory Chaitin, John von Neumann, Kurt Gödel, Life after Google (book), Mind Brain, stock market, Turing Machine
}

What are some assumptions about artificial intelligence? How does artificial intelligence affect the stock market? George Gilder and Robert J. Marks discuss assumptions about artificial intelligence, the stock market, and George Gilder’s new book Gaming AI: Why AI Can’t Think but Can Transform Jobs (which you can get for free here). Show Notes 00:30 | Introducing George Gilder 01:02 | Read More ›

^{
Type
podcast
AuthorRobert J. Marks
Date
September 24, 2020
Tagged
Abstract thought, Ada Lovelace, Alan Turing, Algorithm-of-the-Gaps, AlphaGo, Charles Babbage, Claude Shannon, Cognition, computer, Computers, Consciousness, Creativity, David Gelernter, disjunctive syllogism, Eugene Goostman, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Kurt Gödel, Language, Lovelace test, Marcel Proust, Mathematics, Natural Language Generation, Natural Language Processing, non-algorithmic, novels, ontological argument, ontological proof, Ray Kurzweil, Saint Anselm, Selmer Bringsjord, Singularity, Sports, Theorems, Turing Test
}

The Turing test, developed by Alan Turing in 1950, is a test of a machine’s ability to exhibit intelligent behaviour indistinguishable from a human. Many think that Turing’s proposal for intelligence, especially creativity, has been proven inadequate. Is the Lovelace test a better alternative? What are the capabilities and limitations of AI? Robert J. Marks and Dr. Selmer Bringsjord discuss Read More ›

^{
Type
post
AuthorMichael Egnor
Date
May 24, 2020
Categorized
Philosophy of Mind
Tagged
__focus-north, Cosmological singularities, Featured, Kurt Gödel, Materialism, Naturalism, Res extensa, Steven Novella, Supernaturalism
}

^{
Type
post
AuthorNews
Date
May 10, 2020
Categorized
Artificial Intelligence, Mathematics, Religion
Tagged
___longform, Featured, Formal logic, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Kurt Gödel, Mathematics, Rene Descartes, Robert J. Marks, Saint Anselm, Selmer Bringsjord
}

_{A thought-provoking account of master logician Gödel’s largely unknown proof of the existence of God }_{
News
May 10, 2020
11
Artificial Intelligence, Mathematics, Religion
}

In an unsanitized, politically incorrect (but factual) history, Selmer Bringsjord talks about how the tormented genius Kurt Gödel took up a quest that dated back a thousand years to prove the existence of God by formal logic. His original version didn’t quite work but his editor’s version passed an important logic test.

^{
Type
podcast
AuthorRobert J. Marks
Date
May 7, 2020
Tagged
disjunctive syllogism, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Kurt Gödel, Mathematics, ontological argument, ontological proof, Saint Anselm, Selmer Bringsjord, Theorems
}

Kurt Gödel toppled a tall tower of mathematical reasoning with publication of his work showing no formal system of math could be both complete and consistent. He also gave a mathematical proof of the existence of God. Is Gödel’s proof valid? Robert J. Marks and Dr. Selmer Bringsjord discuss mathematics, Kurt Gödel, and the ontological argument. Show Notes 01:05 | Read More ›