^{ Robert J. Marks December 30, 2021 }

# Randomness, Information Theory, and the Unknowable

_{ Robert J. Marks December 30, 2021 }

In the 1960s, mathematician and computer scientist Gregory Chaitin published a landmark paper in the field of algorithmic information theory in the Journal of the ACM – and *he was only a teenager.* Since then he’s explored mathematics, computer science, and even gotten a mathematical constant named after him. Robert J. Marks leads the discussion with Professor Gregory Chaitin on algorithmic information theory, randomness, unknowability, and philosophy in this bingecast.

## Show Notes

**0:00:09 |**Introducing Gregory Chaitin**0:05:12 |**Chaitin’s Youth**0:06:44 |**Chaitin’s journey to computer science**0:08:38 |**Chaitin’s thoughts on Leonard Euler**0:12:53 |**Chaitin’s near brush with Kurt Gödel**0:17:21 |**The quirks of Gödel**0:21:00 |**Chaitin’s landmark paper published in his teen years**0:21:51 |**Chaitin’s definition of randomness**0:28:30 |**Metaphysics**0:30:07 |**Chaitin’s philosophical interest**0:39:46 |**Fermat’s Last Theorem**0:43:55 |**Is Math Discovered or Invented**0:45:08 |**The Pressure or Publish Papers**0:53:18 |**A human-computer symbiosis?**0:56:40 |**Computer Software Proofing Mathematics**1:03:26 |**Bureaucratic Obstacles to Genuine Research**1:10:57 |**A Simple Explanation**1:13:39 |**Is Creativity Non-Computable?**1:15:07 |**Defining Creativity**1:20:20 |**Chaitin’s number of Chaitin’s Constant?**1:42:49 |**Panpsychism**1:45:58 |**The usefulness of philosophy and the impractical**2:04:30 |**Could Chaitin’s number be calculated to a precision which would allow for a proof or disproof of something like Goldbach’s Conjecture?**2:06:33 |**The Jump of the Omega Number

## Additional Resources

- Gregory Chaitin’s Website
*Unravelling Complexity: The Life and Work of Gregory Chaitin*, edited by Shyam Wuppuluri and Francisco Antonio Doria*Meta Math!: The Quest for Omega*by Gregory Chaitin*Thinking About Gödel and Turing: Essays on Complexity*by Gregory J. Chaitin*Proving Darwin: Making Biology Mathematical*by Gregory Chaitin- Leonard Euler, Swiss mathematician and physicist
- Kurt Gödel, Austrian-born mathematician
- Georg Cantor, German mathematician
- Dr. Robert J. Marks’ critiques of Gregory Chaitin’s ideas on Youtube
- “Active Information in Metabiology“: Winston Ewert’s, William Dembski’s, and Robert J. Marks’ paper on Chaitin’s metabiology
- “On the length of programs for computing finite binary sequences,” by Gregory Chaitin, published when he as a teenager. (Journal of the ACM (JACM) 13, no. 4 (1966): 547-569).
- Karl Popper
*The Logic of Scientific Discovery*by Karl Popper- Hermann Weyl
- Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
- Leibniz’s
*Discours de Métaphysique*(in English) - “A Theory of Program Size Formally Identical to Information Theory” by Gregory Chaitin (Journal of the ACM (JACM) 22, no. 3 (1975): 309-440).
- Ray Solomonoff, one of the founders of algorithmic information theory
- Marvin Minsky, cognitive and computer scientist
*Fermat’s Last Tango*on YouTube- Henri Poincaré, 19th century French mathematician
*A Mathematician’s Apology*by G.H. Hardy- Claude Shannon, mathematician, “the father of information theory”
- Lofti Zadeh, world-renowned computer scientist
- Andrew Wiles, English mathematician
- William Sealy Gosset, statistician and chemist
- Elon Musk, engineer and entrepreneur
- Neuralink
- Alan Turing, mathematician and philosopher
- Stephen Wolfram, computer scientist and physicist
- WolframAlpha
- Mathematica
- Carl Friedrich Gauss, German mathematician and physicist
- Srinivasa Ramanujan, Indian mathematician
*The Unknowable*by Gregory Chaitin- Paul Erdős, Hungarian mathematician
- Chaitin’s Constant
- Jack Schwartz, American mathematician
- Roger Penrose, British mathematician and Nobel Prize winner
*The Emperor’s New Mind*by Roger Penrose*Shadows of the Mind*by Roger Penrose- Stephen Hawking, British theoretical physicist
- Selmer Bringsjord, engineer and computer scientist
- The Lovelace Test, a discussion between Robert J. Marks and Selmer Bringsjord at Mind Matters
- Giulio Tononi, neuroscientist and psychiatrist
- Christof Koch, German-American neuroscientist
- David J. Chalmers, philosopher and cognitive scientist
*The Conscious Mind*by David J. Chalmers- Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz’s monads
- “Consciousness and Information, Classical Quantum or Algorithmic?” by Gregory Chaitin
*Bit Bang. La nascita della filosofia digitale*by Giuseppe O. Longo (translation: Bit Bang: The birth of digital philosophy)*Elements of Information Theory*by Thomas Cover and Joy Thomas- Chris Calude, professor at the University of Auckland
- Goldbach Conjecture
- Collatz Conjecture
- Legendre’s Conjecture
- G.H. Hardy, English mathematician
- Hector Zenil, computational natural scientist
- Automacoin
- Bitcoin
- George Gilder, economist and co-founder of the Discovery Institute
- Twin Prime Conjecture
- BBC 4’s Dangerous Knowledge