Cosmic fine-tuning is the observation that many of the values of the variables in the fundamental laws of physics specifically permit the existence of sentient life (life like us) within a very narrow margin of error. The likelihood of this happening by chance seems vanishingly small. It seems as if Someone expected us.
How can we explain this? The fact that God created the universe explains fine-tuning. But for atheists, it’s a real conundrum. As a result, at Neurologica blog, neurologist Steven Novella (pictured) and philosopher Philip Goff have been discussing the most popular atheist explanation for fine-tuning, the “multiverse.” That is, there are countless universes out there, each with its own parameters, and ours just happens to be one that supports our particular type of life.
So far, they agree on four points. Let’s look at them:
1 – The probability of our universe existing is unaffected by the presence or absence of other universes. To think otherwise is the inverse gambler’s fallacy.Steven Novella, “Multiverse Again” at Neurologica blog
Comment: The proposition that “our universe existing is unaffected by the presence or absence of other universes” is unintelligible. “Universe” means everything, so “other universes” makes no sense. If Novella and Goff mean “other locales in the universe that have different laws of physics,” they should say so. The proposition as it stands is senseless. Ironically, Novella and Goff (pictured) both agree with it.
Note: Inverse gambler’s fallacy: “the fallacy of concluding, on the basis of an unlikely outcome of a random process, that the process is likely to have occurred many times before.”
2 – The probability that some universe capable of evolving complex life exists (assuming the premises of the fine-tuning problem) is higher if there are multiple universes than if there is only one universe.Steven Novella, “Multiverse Again” at Neurologica blog
Comment: Again, “multiple universes” is senseless. It means “multiple everything.” It’s gibberish. Novella and Goff seem to think that the concept of “probability” has meaning when applied to “multiple everything.” Probability necessarily refers to a range of possible states and presupposes an observer capable of surveying the states. In that case, the observer is in the (only) universe and “multiple universes” is meaningless.
3 – The key to the question of inferring a multiverse from the observation of our universe (again, assuming the fine-tuning problem and that there is no other solution) is therefore asking the right question – do we consider the probability of our universe existing or of some universe existing?Steven Novella, “Multiverse Again” at Neurologica blog
Comment: One cannot infer a “multiverse” from the observation of our universe because inferring “multiple everythings” from “everything” is unintelligible. If Novella and Goff mean that the observation of our universe reveals regions that have different laws of physics, they should say so. Their argument to explain fine-tuning would then be: If the universe had a sufficient number of localities with different laws of physics, apparent fine-tuning in one locality could realistically occur by chance. I think that this is in fact what they are claiming. The problem is, to make their claim credible, they must show that there actually are localities in the universe in which the laws of physics differ in a way that would make fine tuning likely by chance.
They have not shown this, because there is no evidence for it. Their rhetorical sleight of hand here is innovative. Novella and Goff use “multiverse” to expand the probability range while at the same time using “multiverse” to exempt themselves from any requirement to produce actual scientific evidence that this probability range — these “multiverses” (i.e. localities) — actually exist. They are saying in effect that the localities that they need to prove their theory exist but they can’t find them because they are in other universes.
Novella and Goff invoke “multiple everything” while at the same time defining “everything” in a way that precludes observation. Nonsense has its uses, after all.
4 – There is a selection effect in that only a universe capable of evolving sentience would be observed (assuming no external observer).Steven Novella, “Multiverse Again” at Neurologica blog
Comment: “Selection effect” is only intelligible among things that exist, which means things in the category of everything (i.e. the universe). One can no more “select” between multiverses than one can select between New Jersey, Narnia, and Oz. “Natural selection” is an empty concept to begin with. Application of an empty concept to fantasy “multiverses” is doubly nonsensical but it at least has the attribute of consistency.
Novella and Goff’s sojourn in the “multiverse” fantasyland is atheist desperation. Fine-tuning is obvious evidence for God, and the whole “multiverse” project is a hand-waving gamble to evade the truth.
The science is straightforward: The universe is fine-tuned for our existence because God created it that way.
You may also wish to read:
Here is a way we can be sure if we are living in a multiverse: An experiment can test the idea that there is an infinite number of universes. For our experiment, we need a quantum coin flipper, a disintegration gun, and observers who are sure that there is an infinite array of universes out there. (Eric Holloway)
Multiverse physicist Max Tegmark seeks AI that checks news bias. Naive people who truthfully claim to be acting only “for good” in trying to address bias in the news via AI are kidding themselves. Power brokers may push to treat an AI-based fact/bias checker as infallible when it simply reflects the shared philosophical biases of its programmers. (Denyse O’Leary)